Abstracts |
Prof. Klaus von Klitzing - Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart (ur. 28 czerwca 1943 w Środzie Wielkopolskiej koło Poznania)Niemiecki fizyk, laureat Nagrody Nobla w dziedzinie fizyki w roku 1985 za odkrycie kwantowego efektu Halla. Studiował fizykę na Uniwersytecie Technicznym w Brunszwiku. Kontynuował swoją karierę naukową na Uniwersytecie w Würzburgu, gdzie zajmował się badaniem półprzewodników. Tytuł doktora uzyskał w 1972 roku, habilitował się w roku 1978. W 1980 r. objął profesurę na Politechnice Monachijskiej, a od stycznia 1985 r. pracuje jako dyrektor Instytutu Fizyki Ciała Stałego Maxa Plancka w Stuttgarcie. W trakcie swojej kariery naukowej, Klaus von Klitzing prowadził badania naukowe na Uniwersytecie w Oksfordzie, w Anglii, w High Magnetic Field Laboratory w Grenoble we Francji oraz w IBM Research Lab w Yorktown Heights, USA. Profesor Klaus von Klitzing jest członkiem wielu międzynarodowych instytucji naukowych, posiada kilkanaście doktoratów honoris causa. Jego nazwiskiem została nazwana w 2003 r. jedna z asteroid krążących miedzy Marsem a Jowiszem. Profesor Klitzing nie mówi po polsku, jednak wcześniej odwiedził nasz kraj kilkakrotnie."A New Kilogram in 2018: The Biggest Revolution in Metrology since the French Revolution"Metrology - the science of measurements - is responsible for the international uniformity and precision in standards. Today, the seven units for meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela of our international system of units (SI units) are used as a basis to express everything in nature by numbers and units. The first global system of units was introduced during the French Revolution with prototypes for the meter and kilogram. Even today, an artefact of platinum iridium is by definition the international unit of mass but this standard is not stable enough. Therefore, a recommendation to replace the current SI by a new system based on constants of nature is expected for 2018. Interestingly, two methods are used to realize a new kilogram and both of them have connections to Czochralski grown silicon. The second talk at this international seminar discusses the Avogadro project where the number of silicon atoms in a silicon sphere is determined whereas my presentation concentrates on the realization of an electronic kilogram. For this experiment the quantum Hall effect (my Nobel Prize 1985) is essential. This effect was accidently discovered on a silicon field effect transistor-the most important application of Czochralski grown silicon.* * * * *Prof. nadzw. Andrzej Zięba (AGH, Kraków)The importance of monocrystalline silicon spheres in redefinition of the unit of mass.The kilogram is defined at present as a mass of the artifact stored in BIPM in Sevres. Its redefinition in terms of fixed values of universal physical constants is realized using two experimental techniques. The watt balance (Kibble balance) is most important but "counting" of atoms in silicon sphere is the only independent method which achieves comparable accuracy. This work known as "Avogadro project" involves a production of a most perfect spheres in the Earth, made of monocrystalline silicon produced using Czochralski method. Such spheres are also considered as good secondary standards of kilogram, having metrological parameters better than actual cylinders made of Pt-Rh alloy.* * * * *Prof. Anna Pajączkowska - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, PolandSeveral thoughts on Professor Dr Jan Czochralski.A brief sketch of biography and achievements of Professor Jan Czochralski is presented. Biography and scientific achievements of Jan Czochralski are associated with Kcynia hometown, and to his stay in Berlin, Frankfurt and Warsaw. Professor dr Jan Czochralski was metallurgist, a very active and clever scientist who used different methods for characterization of metals and alloys, including structure investigations, he was one of the pioneers who applied the X-ray studies of metal. He continued the studies of the crystallization rate of metals, elastic properties, corrosion of metals and alloys. He was an author of several papers and patents which can be easily find in Chemical Abstracts. He remains in our memory as a great scientist, inventor, well-known in material science, electronics, crystallography. He has permanent position as a „father” of crystal growth method named the Czochralski method; Cz-method.* * * * *Prof. Dorota A. Pawlak - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland and Centre of New Technologies University of WarsawNovel functional materials produced by crystal growth methods.Prof. Jan Czochralski investigated the crystallization velocity of metals from the melt, for this he developed a crystallization method in 1916, published in 1918 [1], which later has been used by Teal and Little [2] in Bell Laboratories to grow first germanium single crystal. This good quality crystal enabled formation of the first p-n junction and design of the first point-contact transistor. J. Bardeen, W. H. Brattain and W. B. Shockley for the discovery got the Nobel prize in physics in 1956.
[1] J. Czochralski, Z. Phys. Chem. 1918, 92, 219. [2] G.K. Teal, J.B. Little, Phys. Rev. 1950, 78, 647. [3] D. R. Smith, et al. Science 2004, 305, 788. [4] W. L. Barnes, et al., Nature 2003, 424, 824. [5] D. A. Pawlak, et al. Adv. Funct. Mat. 2010, 20, 1116. [6] K. Sadecka, et al. Adv. Opt. Mat. 2015, 3, 381. [7] K. Sadecka, et al. Opt. Express 2015, 23, 19098. [8] M. Gajc, et al. Adv. Funct. Mat. 2013, 23, 3443. https://www.facebook.com/fmlaboratory/videos/608375495898423/ - demonstration of the plasmonic resonance in materials obtained by NanoParticle Direct Doping method [6]. * * * * *Prof. Keshra Sangwal - Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of TechnologyCzochralski method of crystal growth in the scientific literature: an informetric study.Bibliometric data on the growth dynamics of papers devoted to Czochralski method of crystal growth and citations to these papers published in the scientific literature before 2012 are presented and analyzed using selected mathematical functions. It is found that: (1) cumulative number N(t) of papers and cumulative number L(t) of citations to them at time t are mutually related, and (2) as determined by the plot of the parameter L(t)/t^{2} against the number ΔN(t) of papers published per year, the citation behavior of papers published on Czochralski method follows three distinct periods: 1954-1988, 1988-2001 and 2001-2012, which are related to the dependence of the number ΔN(t) of papers published per year on publication time t. |
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Last Updated ( czwartek, 13 kwiecień 2017 ) |